What will happen in Hell?   Will it be...

Eternal Torment, or Universal Reconciliation (aka Christian Universalism), or Annihilation?


with responses by Craig Rusbult  (during life on a road less traveled)


In afterlife, what is the final state of unbelievers?  The page I've been writing since 2014 – Reconciliation (that is Universal or semi-Universal) or Annihilation, or Eternal Misery? describes the views (so you'll know what they do and don't propose, to avoid misunderstandings) and evaluates the biblical evidence.

What do I think?   Based on my careful studying of the Bible, I'm confident that the most common view (claiming the final result of Hell will be Eternal Misery) will not happen in Afterlife.  Both of the other views are consistent with biblically taught Conditional Immortality — by proposing that after a period of suffering in Hell, the final result will be Annihilation or Reconciliation — and each view can claim strong biblical support, so I think each is a possibility.


Earlier I wrote papers comparing only two views, Eternal Misery and Annihilation:

    • 1-page summary (in HTML WebPage or PDF) that was written to condense the ideas in my...
    • full-length paper (in HTML Web-Page or PDF) with 18 pages, and a 14-page Appendix;  it's
          also in Word (if you want to reformat or change fonts) with 2 columns (as in PDF) or 1 column
    and 4 Diagrams (from 2000) to describe 3 Views.

And you can learn from other authors.


my timeline:

In 1987, I began to carefully study “what will happen in hell” as it's described in the Bible, then began writing in 1996, making three versions of the long paper (1997, 2000, 2010) plus the one-page summary in 2010.

Beginning in 2014, I've been learning more about Christian Universal Reconciliation, and becoming more impressed with its biblical support.  Because all of us should rejoice whenever a person becomes reconciled with God, I'm hoping He does this for all people — or at least more people than those who “say yes to God” during Life — by giving people who are unsaved-in-Life another chance in Afterlife.  This view has strong biblical support, but so does Annihilation.  Therefore all I can say is that “I think the eventual fate of people who are unsaved-at-death will be either Annihilation or Reconciliation.”