Handouts for Chemistry 108


© copyright 2009-2012 by Craig Rusbult ,

all rights reserved.

(but you can use these handouts in any way you want

for teaching, with no formal citation-credit required)


Another page links to my personal history with summaries and describes the course:

Chemistry 108, developed by Cathy Middlecamp, is about "chemistry in context"

with applications for nuclear radiation & environmental issues & human physiology

(cancer, suntan/sunburn, nutrition,...) & plastics & biopolymers, and more.

Cathy Middlecamp is editor for the ACS textbook, Chemistry in Context. }


Here are some introductory comments about
Content, Format, Revisions, Links,
and Contact:



Some parts of these summaries are intended to be self-explanatory, but others are not.  The parts that don't self-explain are just “reminders” of ideas that are explained clearly, one step at a time, in class.  While I'm talking about these ideas in class, I refer to the notes (verbally and by pointing to relevant parts) so students will know that the basic ideas are in the summaries.  This lets them feel more free to focus on their real-time activities of listening-and-thinking and seeing what I write on the board.  I encourage students to review the summaries soon after class, while they still have fresh memories of what they were hearing, seeing, and thinking.



    VARIETY:  I've used two basic formats, with many variations.  The typical handout-format changes between Exam 2 (with Two-Dimensional Grids for CSN, EM, Ozone) and Exams 3-4 (with typed summaries that are similar to Cliffs Notes, plus some hand-written worksheets).
    WHITE SPACE — In class, I comment on the compact format of my summaries, which don't have much of the “white space” that students see in textbooks.  I explain how, if they think it will help to make a summary easier to mentally process, students can either personalize their summary by colorizing it — they can study the colorized summaries I make and link-to, for ideas about doing this — or make their own summary notes.

    an extra step — Sometimes my browser (Firefox for Mac) says "This pdf document might not be displayed correctly." but it does work if you click the browser's "Refresh Page" button. (occasionally, clicking it more than once is required)


    REVISIONS — Feel free to use these handouts "in any way you want for teaching," as stated in the top-of-page copyright notice.  Most links are to PDF files that must be printed as-is, but 9 Word files are available so you can revise their format and content by addding & subtracting ideas, and fixing errors - those I know about are included in my description of a handout, and maybe you'll find others.  Or you can print a PDF and then revise it by hand before printing it or re-scanning it.
    PRINTING — For the class, I printed black-and-white versions as handouts for students, and made the colorized versions available online.

    LINKS — italicized links keep you inside this page, and
non-italicized links open a new page in this window;  to open a link in a new window or tab, right-click it.

    CONTACT — If there are problems (links that don't work,...) or you have comments or suggestions, please tell me: Craig Rusbult <crusbult@wisc.edu>



Early in the semester, I recommend a strategy for learning:


In September and October, you [students] can begin learning in ways
that will help you prepare more effectively for your Final Exam.
When your knowledge is logically organized, it will be
easier for you to understand, remember, and use it.


This page ends with

Practical Strategies for Effective Learning


but most of the page is

links to handouts I've made for you, to summarize ideas
(as in Cliffs Notes) and to help you organize these ideas.


Most comments below were written for my students,
so imagine that "you" are a student.


Preparing for Exam 1

NUCLEAR REACTIONS  —  You [students] can use this summary

(which is densely packed and, compared with later summaries,
is less logically organized) to make your own summary notes.
And you can highlight it — on your original or a new copy

maybe doing this as in my COLORIZED version from Fall 2011:
Nuclear Reactions (3 main types & more) are in dayglow-yellow;
green is particle-characteristics (summarized in the "little numbers")
along with "compare to find SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES" in the
middle of the page, plus why-and-when beta emissions occur;
Chemical Reactions (ionizing) are blue, #1 has been emphasized;
Penetration/Shielding is orange;
Health Effects are pink, on left side and lower center;
and a variety of topics (check the colors) are from center
of page downward and rightward, including the two factors
(# of atoms, radioactivity per atom) determining the Curie-rate.


Also, in mini-handouts that you may or may not find useful:


Flash-Card List for memorizing Names-and-Symbols


e = mc2four problems (and more) with answers:
The bottom of this page has the e-mail I sent you R morning
before Quiz 3, with a few minor revisions, like adding superscripts.



Preparing for Exam 2



This is the handout I gave you [students] W, October 3.

I recommend using the COLORIZED version, because the colors
can help you see logical organization in rows & columns;
on left side of the table, rows are chemicals, and
columns are reactions that form it or use it:
• 4 black squares (left side) for 2x3 blocks (CO/CO2, ...);
• 5 orange reactions of O3 chain, in middle and at top,
to form ozone and (in the 5th reaction) to eliminate it;
• yellow (upper-right & bottom-center) are acid (and base)
reactions, which are related to aqueous solubility (in blue);

green shows respiration & photosynthesis (with CO2 & O2),
right-side column shows properties & detective work.


(and you can fill a blank grid with information about C-S-N-O-etc)


Microsoft Word Documents:
Exam 2 (most text for Carbon-Sulfur-Nitrogen Grid)

and for later, Quiz 7a - Quiz 7b - Exam 3a - Exam 3b
Quiz 8ab - Quiz 8c - Quiz 9 plus Quiz 9 (old version)


W, Oct 10, I gave you
a worksheet about reactions & calculations.


COLORIZED (recommended)* or extra black-and-white + blank grid.

{ * due to the colors, plus revisions that aren't on "black-and-white",
which include fixing some (but not all) of the ERRORS described below }
Again, there is a logical organization in the rows-and-columns,
which you can discover by studying the grid;  it's important to know
what each type of radiation does (ionizes, break bonds,...) in orange;
also important, UV in yellow;  for other parts (e.g. blue-highlighted
Chapman Cycle, and how Cl• is produced from CFCs and on PSCs),
wait to see Dr Larson emphasis-and-content in lectures;
the vertically-middle part of the page is Health Effects,
and the bottom 1/3 has a variety of topics, including (at left)
reflection-absorption-transmission + ACE, and (at right) structures.


ERRORS — "NO2 –(600 nm, visible light)→ NO + O" not N2O.

As I've explained, the main cause of melanoma is UV-A.
And all sunblocks (Lecture 16, Oct 12, Slides 33-34) reflect,
although (CiC, page 84) "some absorb UV as well."
PSCs form due to "circular wind pattern" (which does reduce winds
blowing across the interior part of Antarctica) instead of "no wind".

I think all other info is correct, but (as always) if you see any errors,
please tell me ASAP so I can "pass it on to others" and your thoughtful
helpfulness will be sincerely appreciated by me and your fellow students.


btw - When the CiC-textbook is cited, usually it's for the 7th Edition, 2012;
but I've been making handouts since 2009, and maybe some page-citations
have not been updated, so you (teachers) should check these to be sure.


CFCs-OZONE-etc (maybe on Exam 2?) is below.



Preparing for Exam 3


CFCs-OZONE-etc (for Stratospheric Ozone,...)
is available in Black & White and with colors to clarify, with
red (re: H & lifetimes)

and blue (re: Cl & ozone depletion) to supplement blue parts of EM Grid.
The first 2 columns show how the group-name (CFC, HCFC,...) gives info
about STRUCTURE and PROPERTIES.  For the 3rd column (PROPERTIES)
look at the Colorized Version.  Use the final column (USES) along with
lecture-info (as always, they're first priority and ultimate authority)
and CiC-textbook, to make your own self-organized summary notes.


2 Quiz 6 (CFCs-etc, acid-base, pH, polarity & solubility,...) – on Nov 2:
Quiz 6 (photo-scanned) – You can highlight it with colors, and
rearrange it to make your own custom-organized summary notes.

errors:  for "NH3 + H2O..." [OH-] increases (basicity ↑, pH ↑, acidity ↓ );
and for "H2SO4 + H2O..." the [H+] increases (acidity ↑, pH ↓ ).


3 • Quiz 7a (math with conversion factors) – handout on Nov 7:
Quiz 7a (scanned + text-only).  I recommend this year's 1-page version,
but an earlier 2-page version has some extra topics, described at the
bottom of the 1-page version:  colorized (page 1 & page 2) and a
text-only version (made from the word-file so the text is easier to read,
it just doesn't have the GE-diagram that I've re-drawn more logically).


4 • Quiz 7b - drawing & naming isomers (principles, examples),... – Nov 9:
This is the 2nd handout for Quiz 7, so it's Quiz 7b (scanned) & text-only.

error correction:  halfway down the right side, a line that begins
"B: 4 3 3 ..." should be "B: 4 3 2 ...";  do you see why?


Microsoft Word Documents:
Exam 2 (some text for CSN Grid)

Quiz 7a - Quiz 7b - Exam 3a - Exam 3b
Quiz 8ab - Quiz 8c - Quiz 9 plus Quiz 9 (old version)


5 • Exam 3b (info-sheet) - 3b-word & 3b-pdf - old version - email (M, Nov 12)

(in top-right area, second "A-Rain" should have upward arrow from NO to NO2)



Preparing for Exam 4


WorksheetQuiz 8a-and-8b (with principles) and 8a-colorized


Microsoft Word Documents:
Exam 2 (some text for CSN Grid)

Quiz 7a - Quiz 7b - Exam 3a - Exam 3b
Quiz 8ab - Quiz 8c - Quiz 9 plus Quiz 9 (old version)


Worksheet — Quiz 8c  (with practice problems + tips)

Questions and Key ( B-and-W & color )


I've colorized a lecture handout (maybe for W, Dec 12) showing
amino acids that are nonpolar, polar (neutral), acidic, basic.
The bottom shows peptide bonds, which are amide bonds
that have a special name when they occur in polypeptides.



I just discovered a worksheet, from Fall 2011, with a problem
(to avoid "the answer" look at the bottom first) to find Functional Groups.


Line Diagrams (Skeletal Diagrams) clearly explains-and-shows these
for alkanes (similar for alkenes), amines, acids, aromatics, ester.


Preparing for Quiz 9


For Quiz 9, re-study the recent handouts (given to you for Exam 4),
especially the parts marked with a vertical bar in the left margin,
that are labeled something like "after the exam, for Quiz 9" in the

  Handout for Exam 4

scanned black & white  &  COLORIZED Versions! )





Below are “strategies for learning” that students
may find useful in general, not just for Chem 108.

Practical Strategies
for Effective Learning:

Chemistry is cumulative, so consistent well-timed studying
will help you build and maintain a strong foundation.   But
don't waste time;  if you have trouble, get help from others.


It's not the will to win,
it's the will to WORK to win.

( A former co-teacher of chemistry was a star sprinter, and
one of her t-shirts was a reminder that "the will to work to win"
is essential for achieving high-quality performance in athletics,
this also is essential in chemistry and your other classes. )


SUCCESS, as defined by John Wooden, is "peace of mind, which is a
direct result of self-satisfaction in knowing you made the effort to
do your best to become the best that you are capable of becoming."


A Master Skill for Life – Learning from Experience


Example 1 — do it better
One of my friends became an expert welder by following
wise advice from his welding teacher:  Every time you do a job,
do it better than the time before (by learning from the past and
concentrating in the present) and always be aware of what you
are doing now (and how this is affecting the quality of welding)
so you can do it better the next time;  you are intentionally
learning from the present, to help you prepare for your future.
( Learning from Experience - to Ski & Weld and do Much More )


Example 2:  Why did I miss it?  How can I fix it?
You can learn by using an Oregon Strategy (that was used
to help students one semester when I was visiting U of O)
so — like the welder — you will continually improve:
For each exam-question you missed, ask "Why did I miss it?"
( not enough studying time? not studying in the most productive ways?
not performing well during the exam, so you “knew” but didn't get credit?
or...? ) and "How can I improve? (so the next time I'll get it correct)"


These strategies – Learning How to Weld and Oregon Strategy – are
examples of Learning Strategies (to improve the quality of your learning,
thinking, and performing) that will help you succeed in Chem 108, and in
the rest of life.  The general skill of developing Learning Strategies could
be one of the most valuable skills you develop in Chem 108.  How?
Below is a general strategy to develop-and-improve a Learning Strategy.


Example 3:  A Strategy for Learning in Lectures
From the beginning, I've emphasized that the most important single
skill in Chem 108 is learning from lectures.  To improve this skill:
you make a strategy-plan for the first lecture;  you use this strategy
and observe your actions (in applying the strategy) and the results (in
your quality-and-quantity of learning);  you re-plan for the second
lecture (by using your experience to evaluate the strategy and your
actions, so you can decide whether to keep them as-is or revise them),
then use-and-observe in the second lecture;  you continue this cycle
(plan, use-and-observe, plan, use-...) so you can continually improve.

( Metacognitive Strategies for Learning-and-Performing )



I've made a page with useful principles for improving your
Skills for Learning (in lectures & other ways) for Chem 108:
use Course Information for planning, to use time effectively;
lectures (prepare before, concentrate during, review after);
concentration (internal vs external, "competition" principle);
FLASH CARDS are a good way to remember important ideas;
Quiz 1 vs Quiz 2 (why is #2 easier? what does the dog do?).


ASSIGNMENTS & WEEKLY PRELABS have heavy "late penalties"
so put them on your Weekly/Daily Schedule of Things to Do.
Some things are constant every week, and others change.

I recommend doing PreLab Quizzes after M lecture, and
don't procrastingate – if a Short Assignments is due Friday,
finish it T night (*) so you can print it and give it to me W, then
any last-minute surprises won't matter, and you won't forget.
* Also include it R night, in case T night you say "it can wait."


that can be fun and/or useful, including
7 Habits of Highly Successful People,
Pyramid of Success
(from John Wooden),
Conflict Resolution.



This section was added by request of a student:


    QUIZ 3
    Yesterday in lecture, Dr Larson said that Albert Einstein was one of her favorite scientists (mine, too) and that we should help you learn how to use one of the important equations he discovered, e = mc2.  I'll explain this Friday, but it may “pass by you too quickly” unless you...

    Work problem 49 (on page 328 of your CiC-textbook), and study the worked-out answer (on page A-23 in the back of CiC).  Here is some useful information:
    In "e = mcc" you must use the proper units for energy (e), mass (m), and the speed of light (c).  The proper units, which you must use if you want to get correct numerical answers, are:  e in Joules (J),  m in kg,  c in m/s.   For problems 47-49, some useful conversion factors are:
    for mass "m", 1 kg = 1000 g
    for energy "e", 1 kJ = 1000 J


    As usual, I encourage you to invest time, but don't waste time.  If you're making progress, continue.  If not, ask other students or me "what to do" and why.

    Then work problems 47a and 48.  So you'll have feedback about whether you're doing it correctly, I think the correct answers are:
   47a. change in mass = 5.57 x 10*-13 kg = 5.57 x 10-13 kg
        (5.57 x 10*-13 means 5.57 times 10 to the -13)
   If you didn't get this answer, check the equation-setup below.
   48.  2.385 x 10*12 = 2.385 x 1012


    The exam from Spring 2012 has an e=mc2 problem on page 4.

    You can invent your own problems -- and see the simplicity of a situation where the equation has two variables (E and m, because the value of c will always be given to you) so if you know either, you can find the other -- by "reversing" what is GIVEN and what you're asked to FIND.

    For example, a reversed 47a would be "if during a chemical reaction the change of mass is 5.57 x 10-13 kg, find the energy in kJ."  Of course, you know that the answer is

    Or you can change the units, like this: "if during a chemical reaction the change of mass is 5.57 x 10-10 g, find the energy in kJ."

    Or a question might ask "if during a chemical reaction the change of mass is 5.57 x 10-10 g, find the energy" without specifying the units of energy, which means that you should give your answer in the "proper units" which is J, not kJ.

    a reminder:  ALWAYS include units in your answer.
    also -- You could be asked to find the change of mass during a reaction, as in Problem 49, where the method of solving is shown on page A-23 of CiC.  Due to the "precedent" in Quiz 3, this seems less likely, but it would be a totally reasonable type of question to ask.

    You can think about 47c, and tomorrow morning I'll talk briefly about it and 47b.

    Here are equation-setups:

47a.       e        = m     c         c
    (50.1 x 1000 J) = m (3 x 10*8)(3 x 10*8)

48. e =      m                       c2
    e = (.0265 g)(1 kg / 1000 g)(3 x 10*8 m/s)2


    If you have lab tomorrow, you can ask questions then.  Or, for everyone, after lab at 5:30 in Chem 1371.  Or in class Friday morning.
    The course syllabus (plus an explanation in the first lecture) says you need a "scientific calculator" tht has an "exponent" button like "EE" (on a calculator made by TI) or "Exp" (if made by Sharp) or something like that.  For example, to enter "3 x 10*8" (= 3 x 108) you press "3 EE 8" or "3 Exp 8".


 this page is https://educationforproblemsolving.net/labs/chem108.htm